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What is BRCA gene?

What is BRCA gene?

What is BRCA gene?

BRCA is one of the well-studied tumour suppressor gene. There are two BRCA genes one is BRCA1 and the other is BRCA2. BRCA1 and BRCA2 are involved in the maintenance of genome stability, specifically the homologous recombination pathway for double-strand DNA repair.

BRCA1 gene encodes a 190 kD nuclear phosphoprotein, this gene contains 22 exons spanning about 110 kb of DNA. Mutations in this gene are responsible for approximately 40% of inherited breast cancers and more than 80% of inherited breast and ovarian cancers. BRCA1 mutations in the germline have become a hallmark of hereditary breast and ovarian cancers. The BRCA2 gene was found on chromosome 13q12.3 in humans.

BRCA Genes

BRCA1- and BRCA2-associated hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) is characterized by an increased risk for female and male breast cancer, ovarian cancer (including fallopian tube and primary peritoneal cancers), and to a lesser extent other cancers such as prostate cancer, pancreatic cancer, and melanoma primarily in individuals with a BRCA2 pathogenic variant.

The screening/diagnosis of BRCA1- and BRCA2-associated HBOC is considered in a person by identification of a heterozygous germline pathogenic variant in BRCA1 or BRCA2 on molecular genetic testing.

Breast cancer is one of the most common types of cancer in women it accounts for 12.5% of all new annual cancer cases worldwide. About 13% (1in 8) of U.S., women develop invasive breast cancer in the course of their life (1).

Home Blood Testing

However, many other factors may play an important role in increasing the risk of cancer, such as smoking, chemical exposure, alcohol consumption etc.

Genetic changes

In the US in 2023, invasive breast cancer will be diagnosed in an estimated 297,790 women and 2,800 men, with an additional 55,720 cases of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) diagnosed in women. As per the American Cancer Society: “Cancer Facts & Figures 2023” An estimated 43,700 breast cancer deaths (43,170 in women, 530 in men) will occur in 2023. The breast cancer death rate among females was high in 1989 and has since declined by 43% as of 2020, credit goes to earlier detection through screening mammography, as well as increased breast cancer awareness and improved treatment. This decrease translates to approximately 460,000 fewer breast cancer deaths during this time period than would have been expected in the absence of this progress. However, mortality rates in Black women remain about 40% higher than in White women, despite lower incidence (1).

Everyone has BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. This codes for proteins that play an important role in repairing damaged DNA. Mutated BRCA1 at ~55-65% high risk of cancer where normal patient getting cancer risk is only 12%. In the case of mutated BRCA2 cancer risk is ~45%. Individuals with BRCA gene mutations tend to be diagnosed with more aggressive cancer at a younger age, often within 30s-40s.

BRCA testing at home

How this test will help me?

Studies showed evidence that people with BRCA gene mutations have such significantly increased risks of breast and ovarian cancer, thus, testing for BRCA gene mutations strong step in personalizing cancer screening and risk management based on genetic risk factors. Individuals with a strong family history of breast and/or ovarian cancer are generally referred by their doctor to a genetic counselor. This helps them to understand a detailed family medical history and use mathematical models to estimate that individual’s personal cancer risk.

What if I am found to be positive for BRCA mutation?

A person having a positive pathogenic mutation in the BRCA gene typically undergoes more frequent screening for breast cancer, usually mammogram and MSI every year. There is even evidence that some women with BRCA gene mutations and a strong family history of cancer decide to undergo preventive mastectomies and oophorectomies (removal of ovaries) to reduce their future risk of developing cancer. This was very well noticed during Angelina Jolie’s decision on her mastectomy. With her public noticed awareness for BRCA positive condition (3).

Angelina Effect

What technique is best for testing?

Testing of BRCA is done by specialized genetic testing. Traditionally it was done by amplifying the copy of the gene, followed by Sanger’s sequencing. Still, this technique is considered as gold standard. However, this technique might be time-consuming and for somatic conditions in tissue, we might not be able to detect low mutation content levels due to technique limitations. The recent addition of newer techniques such as massively parallel sequencing/Next generation sequencing has allowed scientists to utilize its benefit to move towards the precision medicine-dependent therapeutic approach (4).


  1. American Cancer Society: “Breast Cancer Facts & Figures 2022-2024,” “Cancer Facts & Figures 2023.” Available at: and
  4. Nicolussi, A., Belardinilli, F., Mahdavian, Y., Colicchia, V., D’Inzeo, S., Petroni, M., Zani, M., Ferraro, S., Valentini, V., Ottini, L., Giannini, G., Capalbo, C., & Coppa, A. (2019). Next-generation sequencing of BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes for rapid detection of germline mutations in hereditary breast/ovarian cancer. PeerJ, 7, e6661.

Why Lifenity

At Lifenity, we believe in providing individuals with knowledge that can shape their well-being. By shedding light on the complexities of the BRCA gene and emphasizing the importance of BRCA testing, we aim to guide you toward informed decisions about your genetic health. As your trusted home healthcare provider in the UAE, Lifenity is committed to delivering personalized care that considers the unique aspects of your genetic makeup. Take charge of your health journey, explore the possibilities of genetic wellness, and partner with Lifenity for comprehensive home healthcare services tailored to your needs in the comfort of your home. Your health is our priority, and together, we navigate towards a future of well-being. We have our doctors on call & medical professionals, working 24×7 for your needs.

What is Flu and why to take the Flu (Influenza) vaccine?

What is Flu and why to take Flu (Influenza) vaccine?

Influenza commonly called as Flu is a viral respiratory illness, it is defined as “an infection of the nose, throat, and lungs, which are part of the respiratory system. It is very contagious. It can affect anyone regardless of age, gender and health status. Discover why the flu Vaccination is not just a shot but a shield against a potentially harmful and disruptive illness.

In 2022, worldwide over 400,000 people died from Pneumonia and upper respiratory complications as a result of contracting Influenza (the Flu). 

Signs and Symptoms of Flu:

  • Fever* or feeling feverish/chills (*Everyone that contracts the Flu will experience a fever)
  • Cough
  • Sore throat
  • Muscle, body aches or headaches
  • Fatigue (tiredness)

Some people may have vomiting and diarrhea, though this is more common in children than adults.

What are the complications?

Flu can be serious and can cause different complications. Complications of the flu can range from mild to severe and can affect various parts of the body. Some common flu complications include:


This is one of the most serious complications of the flu. It can be caused by the flu virus itself or by secondary bacterial infections. Pneumonia can result in hospitalization and, in severe cases, can be life-threatening.


Inflammation of the bronchial (breathing) tubes can lead to bronchitis. It can cause coughing, chest discomfort, and difficulty breathing.

Sinus Infections:

The flu can lead to sinusitis, causing symptoms like facial pain, headache, and a stuffy or runny nose.

Ear Infections:

Ear infections, particularly in children, can occur as a result of the flu.

Worsening of Chronic Medical Conditions:

In individuals with pre-existing health conditions like asthma or heart disease, the flu can exacerbate these conditions, leading to hospitalization.


Inflammation of the heart muscle, known as myocarditis, can occur in rare cases.

Neurological Complications:

While rare, the flu can lead to neurological complications such as encephalitis or meningitis.

Muscle or Rhabdomyolysis:

Severe muscle pain and damage to muscle tissue, known as rhabdomyolysis, can rarely occur with the flu.


In severe cases, especially among high-risk individuals, the flu can be fatal.

Who is at higher risk?

Individuals who are at a higher risk of experiencing complications from the flu include:

  • Elderly: People aged 65 and older have a higher risk of severe flu-related complications. Elevate elderly care at home with Lifenity, providing compassionate support and specialized services for your loved ones’ well-being.
  • Young Children: Children, especially those under 5 years old, are more vulnerable to flu complications.
  • Pregnant Women: Pregnant women are at an increased risk of flu-related complications during pregnancy and in the postpartum period. Experience unparalleled prenatal care in Dubai with our expert guidance.
  • Individuals with Chronic Medical Conditions: Those with chronic health conditions like asthma, diabetes, heart disease, and weakened immune systems are more susceptible to severe flu symptoms.
  • Residents of Long-Term Care Facilities: People living in nursing homes or other long-term care facilities are at a higher risk due to close living quarters.
  • Healthcare Workers: Those working in healthcare settings are at an increased risk due to potential exposure to the virus.

How to Prevent?

The flu vaccine is the most effective way to prevent influenza. It works by activating your immune system to produce antibodies against the specific flu virus strains. When you are exposed to the virus, it will fight to protect your body from getting flu infection and reduce its complications.

What are the Benefits of vaccination?

  • Immunity booster: Even if you come in contact with flu after vaccination, the severity and duration of the illness are often reduced due to immunity developed by antibodies, and you’re less likely to experience complications.
  • Safety Sheild: Flu vaccination will not only protect you but it will work as a safety shield for people around you, especially the elderly, infants, and low-immunity individuals
  • Preventing your Absence: The flu can be a debilitating illness, resulting in your absence from school work place, or family gatherings even for days and weeks. Vaccination helps reduce the risk of illness, ensuring you stay productive and healthy.
  • Reducing Healthcare Burden: During peak flu season (from October to April), healthcare facilities are overly burdened. By getting vaccinated, you can contribute to reducing the toll on healthcare.
  • Annual Protection: Flu vaccination is given yearly with an updated version according to circulating viral strains. That means you need to get vaccinated every year to ensure you’re protected against the most current viruses.

Please don’t wait until flu season peaks and hits you or your loved ones, schedule your  vaccination appointment today and get vaccinated as early as possible

Lifenity International Advanced Polyclinic is an international organization for health care services. Get your vaccination at home for a healthier tomorrow. 

We are providing Flu shots in different regions of Dubai. For any queries and questions regarding the flu vaccine or any other health issues you could connect with us any time, our team is here to help with your home healthcare services.

Take home notes:

A simple flu shot can save many lives and prevent the spread of disease, your decision is crucial for yourself, your surrounding people and your community, to stay protected.


-Statistics (Number of people worldwide that contract the Flu).

-Centre for Disease Control and Prevention-CDC. (Flu symptoms).

Register here for your tests, Now!

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